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Arden Miller, Ph.D

Professor of Psychology
Missouri State University


Psychological Statistical Methods




Unit 9: The t test for Independent Means

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Objectives and Lecture Notes
Reading: Aron, Chapter 8

1. Conceptualize the rational and null hypotheses for a test based upon the distribution of differences between means as compared to previous analyses of difference scores.

2. Compute the pooled estimate of the population variance.

3. Compute the Standard Deviation of the differences between means.

4. Select the proper t distribution and use it to complete the hypothesis test for the differences between means.

5. Utilize SPSS to compare means of two groups using the t-test.

6. Review how the assumptions, effect size computations, and power estimates are applied to the t tests for independent samples.

7. Evaluate concerns where multiple t tests are used in a research report.

8. Describe the results of an independent t-test using APA style.


Mirror drawing with independent t test

QA_independent_t tests

z, dependent t, or independent t; which to use

Verify t-tests with SPSS

Review hypothesis testing with an independent t-test